1 Gronris

Essay On Tv As A Source Of Entertainment Wapda

Television As The Main Source of Entertainment

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Latin Americans spend an average of three to four hours each day watching television, for entertainment and information.  Those several hours assume even greater importance with respect to everyday life after we subtract the sleeping hours and the working hours from the full 24-hour day.  Television is still a relatively new technology that appeared about fifty years ago and did not attain near-universal reach until ten to twenty years ago.  Prior to the television era, people have different notions of entertainment --- just as parties, festivals, sports, concerts, theaters and cinema.  But that list of activities was not universally accessible to all.  For example, cinemas may not be present in rural areas, or else regular attendance may not be affordable for the socio-economic underclass.  There are also scale limitations, as when a football stadium will not accommodate the whole population of the country.  Television becomes the great democratic equalizer, bringing movies, football games and so on to the masses.  Television also created new genres of entertainment, such as the vastly popular telenovelas.

It is not universally accepted that the effects of television are all beneficial.  Among its alleged sins is the destruction of social and family values, whereby we have a populace of passive and alienated couch potatoes perched in front of the television screens every evening.  Fifty or sixty years ago, people would be sitting outside talking to their neighbors.  Today, people hide in their fortified homes and may not even know anything about whoever lives next door.  We quote from Robert Kubey and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's book: Televising And The Quality of Life: How Viewing Shapes Everyday Experiences (introduction to Chapter 6):

TV has ruined American home life.  People no longer sit around and visit.  Everywhere you go you have to outtalk TV.  TV people have entered your home and life more than people who should be friends and companions.

--- one of Gary Steiner's [1963] interviewees

When the TV set is on, it freezes everybody ... Everything that used to go on between people --- the games, the arguments, the emotional scenes, out of which personality and ability develop --- is stopped.  So when you turn on the television, you turn off the process of making human beings human.

--- Bronfenbrenner [1983]

The television atmosphere in most households is one of quiet absorption on the part of the family members who are present.  The nature of the family social life during a program could be described as "parallel" rather than interactive, and the set does seem quite clearly to dominate family life when it is on.

--- Maccoby [1951]

Television seems to have changed the ways in which family interaction occurs.  When the set is on, there is less conversation and less interaction.  There is more privatization of experience: the family may gather around the set, but they remain isolated in their attention to it.

--- National Institute of Mental Health [1982]

One of the longstanding, unresolved controversies in mass communication research is whether the use of television and other media interferes with the conduct of family life.  For Frankfurt School theories a central fact of capitalism was the decline of the family as an agent of socialization.  In this view, the socialization role of the family is partly passed on to the media and as a result, the audience becomes passive and one-dimensional (Horkheimer & Adorno, 1972; Marcuse, 1964).

Indeed, since the first days of its massive popularity in the early 1950s -- and in the days since --- television has been conceived by some to constitute an overwhelmingly dominant presence in the home --- a presence that interferes with family interaction and the process of socialization itself.

Other observers consider the television set to be a relative unthreatening home furnishing.  In fact, there is a fair amount of research suggesting that viewing may be linked to more frequent and positive family interactions.  As early as 1949, Riley, Campbell and Ruttiger claimed that television's presence in the home enhanced family togetherness, because it provided one of the few opportunities for family members to spend time together, helping to close the gap between adults and children.  In this view, television viewing is conceived of as being well integrated with the rest of everyday life and posing little threat to human welfare.  Wilensky (1964), however, was dubious about families watching "violent, escapist television" and advised that "students of the media who stress the absorption of television into the warm bosom of the family and peer group ponder what is being absorbed most effectively by whom with what effect." (p.183).

There are many explanations for these differing views.  For one, researchers often examine different aspects of a phenomenon and only see part of the puzzle.  And when it comes to television, scholars and critics are sometimes prone to arrive at singular conclusions about television's impact when in reality, behavior associated with television is quite complex.  With regard to the family , some of this complexity was captured by Coffin's (1955) conclusion over 30 years ago that "Television is both credited with increasing the family's fund of common experience and shared interests and blamed for decreasing conversation and face-to-face interaction" (p.634).

But it is not the purpose of this article to argue for or against the relative social merits of television.  Rather, we would simply like to assess the role of television as a source of entertainment for Latin Americans.  We will now cite some survey data from the 2001 TGI Latina study.  This is a survey of 48,885 persons between the ages of 12 to 64 years old in eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru and Venezuela).  During the survey, the respondents are shown a statement, "Television is my main source of entertainment" and 27.1% of these people said that they completely agreed.  So, for more than a quarter of the population, television is the main source of entertainment.

In the next chart, we show the breakdown by socio-economic levels (where Level A is the top 10%, Level B is the next 20%, Level C is the next 30% and Level D is the bottom 40%).  This is a monotonically decreasing agree rate by socio-economic level.  Survey data such as these are straightforward --- one asks a question and one gets an answer.  But the interpretation that can be put to such data may not be straightforward.  For example, from this chart, one can postulate that this proves that the socio-economic elite have more diversified interests than what passes for entertainment on television.  That may or may not be true.  An alternate postulate may be that the socio-economic underclass do not have disposable income for entertainment purposes (such as going to discos).  But whatever the causes are, the survey data indicate that television has different importance by socio-economic class.


(source:  TGI Latina)

Given the results by socio-economic level, this next chart is unsurprising.  By education, the levels are a monotonically decreasing function of educational level.  By occupation, the levels are lowest among business owners, managers and professionals and highest among the unemployed.


(source:  TGI Latina)

In the next chart, we show the breakdown of the responses by age/sex groups.  By sex, the levels are slightly for females than males most of the time.  By age, this is a U-shaped distribution with the levels being highest among teenagers and old people.  These patterns correspond to a life-cycle phenomenon, where social entertainment (e.g. clubs, discos, cinema, etc) is more important for the 18-34 age group, less so for those who are 45 years or older and less accessible to 12-year-olds.


(source:  TGI Latina)

 (posted by Roland Soong, 8/02/2002)


(Return to Zona Latina's Home Page)


Do you need help with with essay, research paper, homework or even dissertation?

Visit our website - https://goo.gl/HKbmHS (assignmenthelp24.com)





=================>>>CLICK HERE<<<=================
=================>>>CLICK HERE<<<=================
=================>>>CLICK HERE<<<=================


goo.gl
goo.gl


=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP<<<=================
=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP<<<=================
=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP<<<=================




evolve case study answers hiv
hefce impact case study database
city life advantages essay examples
sample cover letter to whom it may concern lyrics
usq assignment policy and procedures
peer tutoring program essay
ruth schwaiger dissertation abstracts
essay for competitive exams 2014 chevy
saving energy essay
essay about my family Help Writing an Argumentative Essay 200 words
1999 ap literature essay question 26
essay on time management strategies
incendiary device term paper
homework compliance scale
grenzwert einer funktion berechnen beispiel essay
education system in ireland irish essay sport
numbers 1-10 worksheets writing persuasive essays
current issues in malaysia essay 2015 nfl
essay why mba now
edward bullough aesthetics lectures and essays online
passive cooling systems case study
sex reassignment covered by insurance ny
pasi sormunen addressing a cover letter
how to reach your goals essay sample
economic life of modern man essay outline
badminton essay for kids
free essays on video games and violence
life in 2050 short essay samples
should college essays have headings
assertion essay examples
essay on social media and its impact on society
haitian troubadour je vais essayer
maha shivaratri celebration in malaysia essay
cofa coursework folder options
dr raj k goyal assignments
national security vs personal freedom essay
a perfect world descriptive essay samples
marketing communication objectives essays on friendship
academic aspirations and professional goals essay samples
influence of technology on education essays
should there be homework on weekends
pope alexander essay on man vs nature
discussion essay prompts for to kill
translation for english essay
college essay edge
personal statement prompt 2012 election
van sanrakshan essay in sanskrit
bhopal gas tragedy case study project management
online shopping discussion essay questions
case study 4 generalization or specialization of labor
mintzberg's managerial roles essays
startup cover letter
progressive era essays dbq documents
Help Writing an Argumentative Essay my lovely village essays
stolen generation example essays with thesis
ea300 essayscorer
song analysis poetry assignment 6th
lifestyle essays
use of police force essaytyper
should cellphones be allowed at school essay
a building on fire essay contest
minds brains and programs essay typer
the voice essaye d embrasser in english
importance of road safety essay in 500 words or less netflix
mla format research paper section headings apa
tumble trak hand stand homework market
how to cite a doctoral dissertation apa
essay on scarcity of water and electricity in pakistan
stretch assignments meaning in urdu
essay title checker
demonstrating leadership essay papers
corporate recruiter cover letter sample
mario and luigi superstar saga final boss music extended essay
what role do the witches play in macbeth essay
william wordsworth Help Writing an Argumentative Essay the prelude ap essays
african american culture essay
population et ressources en eau dans le monde dissertation writing
ignou mba ms-06 solved assignment december 2012 kennedy
math 151 matlab assignments clip
essay on biography of mahatma gandhi
untitled film stills analysis essay
radiology entrance essay
zeitplan dissertation vorlage herz
on friendship essay by zenaida amador
african american slave trade essay
gliederung englisch essay topics
pay to have coursework donepezil
role chemistry our Help Writing an Argumentative Essay life essay
educational technologist cover letter
pst201f assignment 02 mobile
othello's character change essay middle school
template french cover letter
effect of land pollution essay
how to write career objectives essay
new 7 wonders of the world essay
why plastic surgery is bad essay
descriptive essay rubric examples
discursive essay on homophobia
how can i make my assignment lab
tolerance of holy prophet essay
frequency-resolved high-harmonic wavefront characterization essay
general cover letter sample uk lease
as media coursework blog talk
essay contest win a home
nicci french bibliography apa
guidelines college essay
essay on television as a source of entertainment wapda
masters dissertation proposal example pdf download
uba essay
cause or effect essay template
abstract art essays
my dream school essay in gujarati
essay on effects of internet on youth
brother essay ideas for 4th
sports topics for research paper
how to analyze an essay paragraph
earl shorris on the uses of a liberal education essay
genealogy of morals essay 3 summary about the odyssey
cite quote from book in essay citing
how to start a cover letter to whom it may concern letters
definition of a good person essay for college
rise of hitler essay singapore airlines
solar energy research papers pdf
linking words in french essays
proposed solution essay introduction
analytical essay topics for pride and prejudice sparknotes
ap english lit and comp essays
analysis essay example pdf
tampa hispanic heritage essay contest house
je peux essayer en anglais si
Help Writing an Argumentative Essay bsc it 4th sem assignment
b 17 crew assignments abroad
what is homework edit
free essay on books-our best friends
opening title maker for essays
change essays sat
free sample essay about self introduction
citation vs reference vs bibliography maker
mobile banking advertising case study
wishes for new job assignment announcement
ctt1 bibliography definition
essay for university of texas austin
dissertation marks spencer
term paper on death penalty
essay about filipino language
Help Writing an Argumentative Essay with dissertation introduction
essays movies
essay essentials 6th edition pdf
property law act 2007 assignment abroad
hum 115 week 2 gamescape critical thinking

Leave a Comment

(0 Comments)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *